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Stellite Alloy (Origin and Development)

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The Stellite Alloy are hard alloys which can resist various wear, corrosion and oxidation at high temperature. The alloys are applied to wearing surfaces by various surface strengthening process, or alternatively as casting parts. In this article, I will introduce the origin and development of stellite alloys.

Stellite Alloy 12 was invented by an American Elwood Haynes in 1900. The alloy, which is mainly composed of cobalt and chromium, is silver-white after cooling, and it flashes like a star. In Latin, the star called Stella, so it is named Stellite. Later, Haynes used Stellite as a trademark.

In 1922, Stellite was used for hard-faced coatings to solve the special needs of internal combustion engines and jet engines following by. Stellite alloys have made an important contribution to the development of aviation, automotive and high-temperature chemical industries. At present, stellite is consumed about 1,500 tons of per year in the world, one-third of which is used for surfacing welding of internal combustion engine steam valves and others.

Initially, the stellite alloy consists of the cobalt and chromium, and later which developed into a ternary composition of cobalt-chromium-tungsten. Others like carbon, silicon, nickel, etc., were originally considered as impurity elements contained in the alloy. Nowadays, the elements are strictly controlled. The Composition of alloys such as Stellite 1, 6, and 21 is the same as that determined by Haynes.

With continuous research and development, there are more than 30 types of stellite alloy so far. In addition to castings, Stellite is limited to small parts such as small molds, blades, nozzles, seal rings, etc., while large parts are used for coating to save cost. Therefore, stellite alloy is also made cast welding rod, welding rod, tubular welding wire, spray welding alloy powder, etc.

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